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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Microbial cellulases have shown their potential application in various industries including pulp and paper, textile, laundry, biofuel production, food and feed industry, brewing, and agriculture.
Due to the complexity of enzyme system and immense industrial potential, cellulases have been a potential candidate for research by both the academic and industrial research groups.
Nowadays, significant attentions have been devoted to the current knowledge of cellulase production and the challenges in cellulase research especially in the direction of improving the process economics of various industries. Scientific Screening of cellulase technological developments and the future prospects for application of cellulases in different industries are discussed in this paper.
Introduction Biotechnological conversion of cellulosic biomass is potentially sustainable approach to develop novel bioprocesses and products.
Microbial cellulases have become the focal biocatalysts due to their complex nature and wide spread industrial applications.
Cellulases are composed of independently folding, structurally and functionally discrete units called domains or modules, making cellulases module [ 1 ].
Cellulases are inducible enzymes synthesized by a large diversity of microorganisms including both fungi and bacteria during their growth on cellulosic materials Table 1 [ 23 ].
These microorganisms can be aerobic, anaerobic, mesophilic or thermophilic. Among them, the genera of Clostridium, Cellulomonas, Thermomonospora, Trichoderma, and Aspergillus are the most extensively studied cellulase producer [ 4 — 7 ]. Microorganisms having cellulolytic abilities. Structurally fungal cellulases are simpler as compared to bacterial cellulase systems, cellulosomes [ 8 — 10 ].
Fungal cellulases typically have two separate domains: The CBM is comprised of approximately 35 amino acids, and the linker region is rich in serine and threonine.
The main difference between cellulosomes and free cellulase enzyme is in the component of cellulosomes-cohesin containing scaffolding and dockerin containing enzyme. The free cellulase contains cellulose binding domains CBMswhich are replaced by a dockerin in cellulosomal complex, and a single scaffolding-born CBM directs the entire cellulosomes complex to cellulosic biomass [ 1112 ].
Although the mechanism of cellulose degradation by aerobic bacteria is similar to that of aerobic fungi, it is clear that anaerobic bacteria operate on a different system [ 1011 ]. Cellulosomes located on the cell surface mediate adherence of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria to the substrate, which thereafter undergo a supramolecular reorganization, so that the cellulosomal subunits redistribute to interact with the different target substrates [ 12 ].
Cellulases have been commercially available for more than 30 years, and these enzymes have represented a target for both academic as well as industrial research [ 1617 ]. Basic and applied studies on cellulolytic enzymes have demonstrated their biotechnological potential in various industries including food, animal feed, brewing and wine making, agriculture, biomass refining, pulp and paper, textile, and laundry.
In the present paper, the potent industrial applications of cellulases have been critically reviewed.screening for novel cellulase producing bacteria was increased.
Present study was carried with an aim of isolating, screening and identification of efficient cellulase producing bacteria from soil and waste (molasses) of sugar industry.
Table 1. The following is a list of the most cited articles based on citations published in the last three years, according to CrossRef. Screening of cellulase producing fungi was performed on CMC agar plates flooded with congo red and washed with NaCl.
Depending on the diameter of clear zone around the colony, three fungal isolates were identified as cellulase producing fungi and its initial identification was .
Trichoderma reesei (an anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina) is an extremely efficient producer of cellulose- and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes, and is therefore widely employed by the enzyme industry for the production of its own enzymes as well as for producing proteins from other sources [2, 3].
The Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI), a partnership institution at the University of California at Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, and the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, was formed in with sponsorship from .
KEY WORDS: Cellulase, Carboxy Methyl Cellulose, Screening, Substrate concentration, Enzyme Production. INTRODUCTION Cellulase is a nature polymer found exhaustively amount.