Vehicle identifiers and serial numbers, including license plate numbers Device identifiers and serial numbers Web Universal Resource Locators URLs Internet Protocol IP address numbers Biometric identifiers, including finger and voice prints Full-face photographic images and any comparable images Any other unique identifying number, characteristic, or code, unless otherwise permitted by the Privacy Rule for re-identification. A Limited Data Set is similar to the de-identified data set but has fewer of the 18 identifiers removed.
Do the authors have a hidden agenda? Is the information peer reviewed? Is the Information Accurate? When assessing the accuracy, try to determine whether the information is supported by evidence from scientific studies, other data or expert opinion.
If you receive information from a medical journal, note the size and category of the study.
Is the information based on a large or small sample? Read the article carefully to see if the authors discuss any limitations or weaknesses of the study. The most reliable evidence comes from randomized controlled studies. However, other types of studies or the opinions of respected authorities in the field also can lend validity to the information.
If you receive information from a secondary source such as an Internet site or a newspaper article, keep in mind that you are relying on another person's interpretation of the data.
Is the information based on evidence from a study, on expert opinion or is it merely the opinion of the writer?
Although your local newspaper may provide excellent information on certain topics, it lacks the expertise of a cancer journal or a national organization specializing in the field of cancer.
If you need to make an important medical decision, substantiate the information you receive through the local paper with information from a doctor and other credible sources. Also check to see when the information was published or when the Web page was last updated. This is particularly important in the health care field, where information is constantly changing as new discoveries are made.
To summarize, when assessing accuracy, consider the following: Is the information based on scientific evidence?
Is the information supported by facts? Is the original source listed? Do other sources back up the information? Is the information current? Red Flags Information that has no identifiable publisher or author should not be relied on, unless it is backed up by information from other sources that meet the criteria for credibility.
If the purpose of the information is primarily to sell a product, there may be a conflict of interest since the manufacturer may not want to present findings that would discourage you from purchasing the product.
If you suspect that the intent is to sell you a product, consider getting additional information from a more neutral source. At other times, the source may not disclose all of the information or may have a bias that is more subtle and difficult to detect.
Even well respected medical journals or websites may have a slight bias, depending on their experience. For example, a journal targeting surgeons may not discuss other valid treatment options such as radiation or chemotherapy. Although the information may be accurate, it may have a slight bias because of its particular perspective.
When reading health information, notice the date of publication. Given that health information is constantly changing as new discoveries are made, it is important to make sure that the information is current.
If the information is based on a study done several years ago, you should look for more recent information to ensure that the information is still valid.
For example, a website that has not been updated recently or an article that is several years old may not include information on new promising treatments. Be skeptical of sensationalist claims of a "secret cure" or a "miraculous result" that no one else has heard about and that is not backed by evidence.
Remember to use good judgment about information from forums such as Internet chat rooms and bulletin boards. Keep in mind that the experience of one individual does not necessarily apply to you.corporate governance: effects on firm performance and economic growth by maria maher and thomas andersson organisation for economic co-operation and development.
Why Critically Appraise Research Evidence? It is crucial to critically evaluate research evidence in order to facilitate evidence-based practice, which is the use of the best evidence available to guide decision making and program design. Explain why making ethical decisions is even more critical today to professional survival.
Utilize a step-by-step strategy in making ethical decisions. Discuss personal and situational influences on how decisions are made.
Analyze and critically appraise evidence-based literature to support the solution to the identified problem. Analyze and critically appraise evidence-based literature to support the solution to the identified problem and possible solutions, discuss your appraisal of the literature that addresses the problem, present the proposed practice changes from the .
appraisal system, critics the system suffered and how the performance management system came to the practice. The main purpose of this paper is to differentiate these two systems, employee’s performance appraisal and.
Interdisciplinary instruction helps students understand that there are ethical dimensions to most issues of concern.
Ethical considerations entail moral concerns which means accounting for perceptions of right vs. wrong, good vs. bad, and the provision of justice.