GlobalResearch The United Kingdom unknowingly admitted that its government has been lying, accusing Russia of allegedly poisoning former spy Sergei Skripal and his daughter Yulia by the nerve agent Novichok on March 4 in Salisbury.
Prehistoric Cultures Although cereals were being harvested with flint-bladed sickles and ground by limestone in the Nile valley more than 15, years ago, plants and animals were not domesticated for food until about 10, years ago in the fertile crescent of southwestern Asia and soon after that in Mesoamerica, Peru, and China.
While the ice was melting and the climate was warming up, the reindeer and horses retreated to the north, and the mammoths disappeared. Forests spread, and those animals were replaced by red deer, wild pigs, and cattle. Dogs had already been domesticated for a few thousand years.
Sedentary communities settled down in southwest Asia about a thousand years before wheat and barley were domesticated, supported by herds of wild sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs, which were all domesticated by BC.
Women were probably responsible for learning how to cultivate plants as they seemed to have done most of the plant gathering. Women also probably invented potting, spinning, and weaving. Men used to hunting probably took care of the herds and, after the plow was invented, castrated bulls to use oxen to pull plows and carts, though a Sumerian poem refers to a woman in the fields with the plow.
Dug-out canoes were used for fishing and as transportation for trading such items as obsidian, shells, salt, food, and clothing. As more farmland was needed, the invention of the ax enabled people to cut down trees and use wood for building houses.
At first houses were round like the communal caves and huts, but soon rectangles were used so that additional rooms could be added.
In such villages the family replaced the band as the basic social group. The oldest city discovered so far is Jericho, which had two thousand people between and BC.
A large stone wall surrounded the settlement. In the Zagros mountains people living at Ali Kosh hunted gazelles, wild asses, and pigs, fished in the Mehmeh River, and caught wild fowl about BC.
Soon they were growing two-rowed barley and emmer wheat. Numerous bull skulls and horns found in the houses indicate that people probably engaged in rituals as families. Corpses were put out somewhere to be picked clean by vultures before their bones were buried under the floor in their houses.
The simplicity of most grave objects indicates that this probably was a fairly egalitarian society. Before the use of metal there seems to have been little warfare and much greater equality between men and women. The earliest civilization with writing developed in the lands around and between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers which flow southeast into the Persian Gulf.
Large-scale irrigation began along the Euphrates River as early as BC while those living around the Nile and the Indus were only using dikes and ditches to protect their homes and crops from floodwaters.
About BC the first city established in Mesopotamia was Eridu, which a Sumerian creation story credits with being the first city to emerge from the primeval sea.
The oldest known temple was constructed there, and what is called the Ubaid culture developed from to BC. Soon the stone age was transcended, as people learned how to melt and shape copper, gold, and silver. Sumer The city of Uruk had 10, people in BC, and with pottery manufacturing increasing eight hundred years later 50, people were protected by defensive walls.
Most settlements by this time were fortified, and documents written about BC describe major conflicts between the city-states of Ur, Uruk, Umma, and others. With cities came civilization and its organized violence—war. In addition to pottery, other specializations included stonecutters, bricklayers, metalsmiths, farmers, fishers, shepherds, weavers, leather-workers, and sailors.
The wheel was invented for carts, chariots, and pottery-making. Iron was smelted about BC.
Seals had been used to stamp a carved insignia on clay before cylindrical seals became widespread for labeling commodities and legal documents. Pictographic writing was first used by the Sumerians aboutand by BC this had evolved into cuneiform words and syllables. The Sumerian language was not deciphered until the nineteenth century of our era when it was found to be different from both the Indo-European and Semitic language groups.
Fifteen hundred cuneiform symbols were reduced in the next thousand years to about seven hundred, but it did not become alphabetic until about BC.Women In Western Civilization: Home; Hatshepsut; Cleopatra VII; Empress Helena woman could finally win their freedom and rights when the Western Modern civilization came to it's climax.
During this era I would like to present three of the Women that out shinned many other from my perspective and took an important part in Western history. Times Helvetica Monotype Sorts Book Antiqua untitled 1 A Brief History of Sex in Western Civilization Ancient Greece The Ancient Greeks (continued) The Ancient Greeks (Continued) PowerPoint Presentation Penis Statuary at Delos The Ancient Romans Ancient Romans Ancient Rome Ancient Rome City Wall of Pompeii PowerPoint .
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The Cretan, Minoan Costume. An era of great development, contemporaneous with the civilization of ancient Egypt and Phoenicia, and which may be dated about B.C., had preceded the civilization that came from Asia Minor into Crete and Greece. She was interviewed at the Western History Association’s annual conference.
Scholars talked about teaching the history of Western civilization in higher education. They focused on . Orientation Identification. The terms "Iran" as the designation for the civilization, and "Iranian" as the name for the inhabitants occupying the large plateau located between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf have been in continual use for more than twenty-five hundred years.